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With empty fields as far as eyes can perceive and perpetual water shortage, introducing flush toilets sure seemed the biggest challenge in the predominantly dry state of Rajasthan. A total of 321 Gram Panchayats have won the Nirmal Gram Puraskar in the state, but in India’s largest state, this amounts to less than 4% of the total number of Gram Panchayats present.

Known as the ‘...

 

Despite the launch of the Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) in 2002, Hamirpur district in Himachal Pradesh remained almost cut off from the toilet frenzy until 2006-07. Nearly 56% of households had no individual toilets when the campaign was initially launched. Five years into the campaign, less than 1% of the set target was achieved.

At a time when district officials were...

India's rural sanitation programme- Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) was started in 1999, with a goal of eradicating open defecation. Renamed to Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan (NBA) in April 2012, the focus and approach of this programme was supposed to undergo a paradigm shift. Rather than emphasizing only on the construction of toilets, it was to emphasize on changing cultural norms to reduce and...

Subsidy proponents believe that the poor need economic incentives while shaming proponents contend that to bring out lasting behavioural change, intrinsic motivation is required; people are more likely to use and value things they have had to pay for....

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